BILAN DE LA POLITIQUE DE DECENTRALISATION EN CÔTE D'IVOIRE : Cas des communes d'Alépé, de Taabo et de Yopougon

Abstract : Since 1980 the municipalities are at the center of the decentralization policy in Côte d'Ivoire. Contrary to what one might think, communalization is not an innovation in Côte d'Ivoire. During the colonial period, Côte d'Ivoire has experienced three types of municipalities: Mixed communes, average performance of municipalities and self-governing communes. From 1980 to 2011, the number of full-function communes has increased from 37 to 197; then to 1295 in 2011. Thirty three years later, local actors are still looking for an appropriate strategy to satisfy the needs expressed by the population in the municipalities. The main question is to know, that the decentralization policy initiated in 1980 improved the conditions and living environment of the populations in a context of financial crisis and socio-political and military instability? This is to analyze the effects of a policy promoted by the state under the pressure of donors. The objective is to draw up a report of the decentralization policy in local development process from the examples of communal management to Alépé, to Taabo, and to Yopougon. The investigation method was essentially qualitative, but it called at times to quantitative data and an inventory of municipal investments to facilitate understanding. This choice was guided by the need to identify the existing order to facilitate a contributory approach in improving the living and environment conditions of the population. For good visibility in the work, we formed work teams to carry out the survey research in the field. The survey covered 810 household heads (RGPH-98), selected on the basis of the criteria of number of years of residence in the municipality (minimum 5 years); age of household head (at least 30 years); the exercise of a profession permanently in the municipal area. The results obtained were recorded in tables, and then transcribed as maps and graphs. The resulting tables outline the investments in areas of intervention of the actors of community development and propose a classification of such investments in priority order. The Analysis of the results made it possible to highlight the needs expressed by the populations in order of priority. After thirty three years of implementation of the decentralization policy, mayors and their partners have created a range of facilities and infrastructure in the municipalities of Alépé, Taabo and Yopougon. The areas that have been the subject of municipal investments are education, health, the various networks and roads, electrification, water supply, sports and leisure, security, urban planning, the human and socio-economic field. However, people believe that these achievements do not adequately address their concerns. This explains their disappointment. The challenges are enormous and concern also the institutional and legal dysfunction, ineffectiveness of the accompanying measures, training of local actors, the lack of communication between elected officials and citizens, the failure of household waste management systems, endless conflict of urban land, the dwindling financial resources and above all too stifling guardianship; etc. We can finally say that the results of the decentralization policy are mitigated. However the effectiveness of this policy means building the institutional capacity of the municipalities, the consistency of local initiatives, the effectiveness of the transfer of skills, the emergence of the local economy, the adaptation of methods of intervention donors and promotion of decentralized cooperation, etc.
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Abodou Athanase Adomon. BILAN DE LA POLITIQUE DE DECENTRALISATION EN CÔTE D'IVOIRE : Cas des communes d'Alépé, de Taabo et de Yopougon. Géographie. Université Félix Houphouet Boigny (Côte d'Ivoire), 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01337369v2⟩

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