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Extended Nyquist formula for a resistance subject to a heat flow

Abstract : The Nyquist formula quantifies the thermal noise driven fluctuations of voltage across a resistance in equilibrium. We deal here with the case of a resistance driven out of equilibrium by putting it in contact with two thermostats at different temperatures. We reach a non-equilibrium steady state where a heat flux is flowing through the resistance. Our measurements demonstrate anyway that a simple extension of the Nyquist formula to the non uniform temperature field describes with an excellent precision the thermal noise. For a metallic ohmic material, the fluctuations are actually equivalent to those of a resistance in equilibrium with a single thermostat at the mean temperature between the hot and cold sources.
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Preprints, Working Papers, ...
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Contributor : Ludovic Bellon <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, June 5, 2019 - 2:16:13 PM
Last modification on : Monday, November 30, 2020 - 12:24:01 PM


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  • HAL Id : ensl-02148352, version 1
  • ARXIV : 1906.02974


Benjamin Monnet, Sergio Ciliberto, Ludovic Bellon. Extended Nyquist formula for a resistance subject to a heat flow. 2019. ⟨ensl-02148352v1⟩



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